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Words in -ard, -art

English seems to have borrowed enough terms from French with this suffix to give it a certain transparency, if not productivity, within English.Says the American Heritage Dictionary of the suffix, "Indicates a person who does something to excess; for example, drunkard, braggart. [Middle English, from Old French -ard, -art, from Common Germanic -hart, hard, "bold, hardy," often found in proper names such as Reginhart, Raynard, Gerhart, Gerard. See [the Indo-European root] kar-1 in Appendix).]"

I have used a reverse English dictionary to locate instances of this suffix, and the AHD for meanings and etymologies, and have classified those I found as follows:

Pejorative terms for people, often connoting excess

bastard illegitimate child, from Fr. (fils de) bast ‘packsaddle (son)’
blinkard person who blinks habitually; an obtuse person
braggart a bragger (compare Fr. bragard, braguer and "obscurely related" Middle Engl. braggen
dastard ? from Old Norse daestr ‘exhausted’ < ‘languish, decay’
dotard a senile person Middle English doten > dote cf. dotty, dotage
drunkard one who is habitually drunk
dullard a mentally dull person; a dolt
goliard medieval class of wandering, convivial, licentious students, from OF ‘glutton, trickster’
laggard a straggler
niggard a stingy, grasping person; a miser; fr. Scandanavian hnöggr, miserly; to niggle "is akin"
sluggard slothful person; related to sluggish
stinkard contemptible person; animal with foul odor
wizard male witch, sorcerer, magician; (obsolete) wise man or sage; from wise + -ard

 

Neutral terms and names for people

Bernard  
Gerard  
Leonard  
Reynard name given to the fox in folklore
Richard  
Spaniard  

 

Flora and fauna

bustard a bird
buzzard a bird
canard unfounded story, from Fr. canard ‘duck’
collard variant of colewort
costard large English variety of apple, from Fr. coste ‘rib’
gurnard a fish; from OF ‘grunt’, because it grunts when caught
haggard a bird; a wild hawk; 2nd adjectival meaning is ‘wild’
leopard compound: Lat. leo + pard ‘a large cat’
lizard a reptile, from OF
mallard a wild duck, from OF mallart
mazzard a wild, sweet cherry
mustard a plant, fr. OF
pilchard a small fish
pochard a duck
pollard animal or plant top part of which has been removed: dehorned
poulard a capon
spikenard an aromatic plant, ointment therefrom "spike nard"
staggard full-grown male red deer: stag + ard; variant: staggart

 

Things that got their names from people

leotard worn by Fr. aerialist/acrobat named Jules Léotard
mansard a roof shape, designed by Fr. named Mansart

 

Other things

billiard a game, from Fr. billard ‘bent stick’, from OF bille ‘log’
bollard thick post on ship or wharf, from Middle English bole ‘tree trunk’ + -ard
brassard a cloth badge worn on the upper arm; variant: brassart
custard from Middle English crustade (talk about metathesis!)
foulard lightweight twill fabric with small printed design
gabbard flatbottomed barge, also gabbart
galliard spirited dance with triple-time music
gizzard digestive organ
hazard a chance or accident; danger or peril; fr OF hasard, from Sp. axar 'unlucky throw of dice'
milliard British billion, fr. OF milliart, from million
petard a firecracker, fr. Fr. pétard, péter ‘fart’
placard poster, fr. OF word meaning 'to paste'
poniard a dagger
scabbard sheath for dagger: fr. Fr. "shears + bergan ‘protect(or)'"
standard fr. OF estandard, flag marking a place for rallying < stand hard?
tabard short heavy cape or pennant, fr. OF tabart
tankard large drinking cup with single handle and often a hinged cover; fr. Middle English
vizard a visor or mask, variants: visard, visor

 

Things resulting from compounding with -yard rather than -hard

halliard var. of halyard; a rope (influenced by yard)
laniard var. of lanyard, a short rope
orchard from hort- ‘garden’ + yard