1. Place an asterisk next to any of the sentences that are ungrammatical for you, and give the same sentence changed so as to be grammatical, with the minimum number of changes.
a) The instructor told the students to study.
b) The instructor suggested the students to study.
c) The customer asked for a cold beer.
d) The customer requested for a cold beer.
e) He gave the Red Cross some blood.
f) He donated the Red Cross some blood.
g) The pilot landed the jet.
h) The jet landed.
i) A journalist wrote the article.
j) The article wrote.
k) Jerome is bored of his job.
l) Jerome is tired of his job.
2. Indicate the category of each word in the following sentences. (It may help to refer to Sections 1 and 2 in chap. 5.)
a) That glass suddenly broke.
b) A jogger ran toward the end of the lane.
c) These dead trees might block the road.
d) The detective hurriedly looked through the records.
e) The peaches appear quite ripe.
f) Jeremy will play the trumpet and the drums in the orchestra.
3. Each of the following phrases consists of a specifier and a hear. Draw the appropriate tree structure for each example.
a) the zoo
b) always try
c) so witty
d) perhaps pass
e) less bleak
f) this house
g) very competent
h) quite cheap
i) never surrender
j) those books
4. The following phrases include a head, a complement, and (in some cases) a specifier. Draw the appropriate tree structure for each example.
a) into the hyouse
b) fixed the telephone
c) full of mistakes
d) more towards the window
e) a film about pollution
f) always study this material
g) perhaps earn the money
h) that argument with Owen
i) the success of the program
5. Draw phrase structure trees for each of the following sentences.
a) Those guests should leave.
b) Maria never ate a brownie
c) That shelf will fall.
d) The glass broke.
e) The student lost the debate.
f) The manager may offer a raise.
g) The judge often sentences shoplifters.
h) The teacher often organized a discussion.
i) A psychic will speak to this group.
j) Marianne could become quite fond of Larry.
6. Apply the substitution test to determine which of the bracketed sequences in the following sentences form constituents. Reqrite each sentence, replacing the words in brackets with one word. Is the bracketed sequence a constituent?
a) [The tragecy] upset the entire family.
b) They hid [in the cave].
c) The [computer was very] expensive.
d) [The town square and the civic building] will be rebuilt.
e) Jane [left town].
7. Apply the movement test to determine which of the bracketed sequences in the following sentences form constituents. Rewrite each sentence so that the bracketed sequence has been moved. Is the sequence a constituent?
a) We ate our lunch [near the river bank].
b) Steve looked [up the number] in the book.
c) The [island has been] flooded.
d) I love [peanut butter and bacon sandwiches], but not salad.
e) The environmental [movement is gaining momentum].
f) The goslings [swam across] the lake.